We have deliberately not included the RDA’s on here because they vary hugely depending on who you are. This table is for use as a guide only, and is not an exhaustive list but will help to give you an idea of the intrinsic value of the food we eat. Our A-Z Minerals and Vitamins are:


NameFunctionsFood SourcesConditions with deficiencyConditions with excess
Vitamin AAntioxidant synthesized from beta-carotene; needed for healthy eyes, skin, hair, and mucous membranes. Promotes healthy bone growth.dark green/yellow/orange veggies, fruits, cheese, whole milk, butter, eggsNight blindness and Impaired growth of bones and teethHeadache, dizziness, hair loss, nausea, abnormal development of foetus
Vitamin DA group of steroids needed for development and maintenance of bones and teeth.Milk fortified with vitamin D, fish liver oil, also made in the skin whenexposed to sunlight (UV)Ricketts (children), decalcification, and weakening of bonesCalcification of soft tissues, diarrhea, possible renal damage
Vitamin EAntioxidant that prevents oxidation of vitamin A and Polyunsaturated fatty acids.leafy green vegetables, fruits, veggie oils, nuts, wholegrain breads, and cerealsunknownDiarrhea, nausea, headaches, fatigue, muscle weakness
Vitamin KNeeded for synthesis of substances active in clotting bloodLeafy green vegetables, cabbage, and cauliflowerEasy bruising and bleedingCan interfere with anticoagulant medication
Vitamin CAntioxidant; needed for forming collagen; helps, maintain capillaries, bones, and teethCitrus fruits, leafy green veggies, tomatoes, potatoes, cabbageScurvy, delayed wound healing, infectionsGout, kidney stones, diarrhea, decreased copper
Thiamine (B1)Part of coenzyme needed for cellular respiration; also promotes activity of the nervous system.Whole-grain cereals, dried beans and peas, sunflower seeds, nutsBeriberi, muscular weakness, enlarged heartCan interfere with absorpotion, of other vitamins
Riboflavin (B2)Part of coenzymes, FAD; aids cellular respiration, including oxidation of protein and fat.Nuts, dairy products, whole-grain cereals, poultry, leafy green veggiesDermatitis, blurred vision, growth failureUnknown
Niacin (B3)Part of coenzymes NAD; needed for cell respiration ,including oxidation of protein and fatPeanuts, poultry, whole-green cereals, leafy green veggies, beansPellagra, diarrhea, mental disordersHigh blood sugar and uric acid, vasodilation, etc
Folic acid (B9)Coenzyme needed for production of hemoglobin and formation of DNADark leafy green veggies (spinach) nuts, beans, whole-grain cerealsMegaloblastic, anemia, spina bifidaMay mask B12 deficiency
Vitamin B6Coenzyme needed for synthesis of hormones and hemoglobin; Central Nervous System controlWhole-grain cereals, bananas, beans, poultry, nuts, leafy green veggiesRarely, convulsions, vomiting, seborrhea, muscular weaknessInsomnia, neuropathy
Pantothenic Acid (B5)Part of Coenzyme A needed for oxidation of carbs andfats; aids in the formation of hormones and certain neurotransmittersNuts, beans, dark green veggies, poultry, fruits, milkRarely, loss of appetite, mental depression, numbnessUnknown
Vitamin B12Complex, cobalt-containing compound; part of the coenzyme needed for synthesis of nucleic acids and myelinDairy products, fish, poultry, eggs, fortified cerealsPernicious anemiaUnknown
Biotin (B7)Coenzyme needed for metabolism of amino acids and fatty acidseggsskin rash, nausea, fatigueUnknown
CalciumStrong bones and teeth, nerve conduction, muscle contractionDairy products, leafy green veggiesStunted growth in children, low bone density in adultsKidney stones; interferes with iron and zinc absorption
PhosphorusBone and soft tissue growth; part of phospholipids, ATP, and nucleic acidsMeat, dairy products, sunflower seeds, food additivesWeakness, confusion, pain in bones and jointsLow blood and bone calcium levels
PotassiumNerve conduction, muscle contractionMany fruits and veggies, branParalysis, irregular heartbeat, eventual deathVomiting, heart attack, death
SulfurStabilizes protein shape, neutralizes toxic substancesMeat, dairy products, legumesNot likelyÉIn animals, depresses growth
SodiumNerve Conduction, pH and water balanceTable saltLethary, muscle cramps, loss of appetiteEdema, high blood pressure
MagnesiumPart of various enzymes for nerve and muscle contraction, protein synthesisWhole grains, leafy green veggiesMuscle spasm, confusion irregular HB, convulsions, personality changesDiarrhea
ChlorideWater balanceTable saltNot likelyÉVomiting, dehydration
ZincProtein synthesis, wound healing, fetal development and growth, immune functionMeats, legumes, whole grainsDelayed wound healing night blindness, diarrhea, mental lethargyAnemia, renal failure diarrhea, vomiting, abnormal cholest levels
IronHemoglobin synthesisWhole grains, meats, prune juice, clams, soybeans, pumpkin seedsAnemia, physical and mental sluggishnessIron toxicity disease, organ failure, eventual death
CopperHemoglobin synthesisMeats, nuts, legumesAnemia, stunted growth in childrenDamage to internal organs if not excreted
IodineThyroid hormone synthesisIodized table salt, seafoodThyroid deficiencyDepressed thyroid function, anxiety
SeleniumPart of antioxidant enzymeSeafood, meats, eggsVascular collapse, possible cancer developmentHair and fingernail loss, discolored skin
ManganesePart of enzymesNuts, legumes, green veggiesWeakness and confusionConfusion, coma, death

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